ansible 之lineinfile文本修改模块

2年前 (2018-05-23) 运维之路 自动化 3106℃

一、简述

这几天在看了ansible官网,收获蛮多。截取一个lineinfile模块作一个总结。如果批量修改配置文件某一行时,在写playbook时lineinfile避免不了的。

根据官网说法:lineinfile - Ensure a particular line is in a file, or replace an existing line using a back-referenced regular expression.大意是说,针对文件特殊行,使用后端引用的正则表达式来替换

二、实践

playbook,我先定义前面common部分。

---
 - hosts: "{{host}}"
   remote_user: "{{user}}"
   gather_facts: false
  
   tasks:

由于我已经定义标签tags,执行playbook中某个特定任务时,只需执行到对应TAGNAME便可

ansible-playbook line1.yml --extra-vars "host=gitlab user=root" --tags "TAGNAME" -v

1、正则匹配,更改某个关键参数值

   - name: seline modify enforcing
      lineinfile:
         dest: /etc/selinux/config
         regexp: '^SELINUX='
         line: 'SELINUX=enforcing'

验证

[root@master test]# cat /etc/selinux/config

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#     enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.
#     permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#     disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded.
SELINUX=enforcing
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values:
#     targeted - Targeted processes are protected,
#     mls - Multi Level Security protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted

2、在匹配的内容前或后增加一行

2.1 http.conf

[root@master test]# cat http.conf 
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
#Listen 80
#Port

2.2 insertbefore匹配内容在前面添加

    - name: httpd.conf modify 8080
      lineinfile:
         dest: /opt/playbook/test/http.conf
         regexp: '^Listen'
         insertbefore: '^#Port'   
         line: 'Listen 8080'
      tags:
       - http8080

验证

[root@master test]# cat http.conf 
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
#Listen 80
Listen 8080
#Port

2.3 insertafter匹配内容在后面添加

- name: httpd.conf modify 8080
      lineinfile:
         dest: /opt/playbook/test/http.conf
         regexp: '^Listen'
         insertafter: '^#Port'   
         line: 'Listen 8080'
      tags:
       - http8080

验证

[root@master test]# cat http.conf 
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
#Listen 80
#Port
Listen 8080

3.修改文件内容和权限

3.1 原文件内容及权限

[root@master test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1		localhost.localdomain localhost ::1		localhost6.localdomain6 localhost6
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo
[root@master test]# ls -l hosts
-rwxrwxr-x 1 root qingyun 111 12月 13 18:07 hosts

3.2 剧本

    - name: modify hosts
      lineinfile:
         dest: /opt/playbook/test/hosts
         regexp: '^127\.0\.0\.1'
         line: '127.0.0.1 localhosts'
         owner: root
         group: root
         mode: 0644
      tags:
       - hosts

3.3 执行验证

[root@master test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo
[root@master test]# ls -l hosts
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 49 12月 13 18:16 hosts

4、删除某一行内容

4.1 原文件

[root@master test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo

4.2 absent剧本

- name: delete 192.168.1.1
      lineinfile:
         dest:  /opt/playbook/test/hosts
         state: absent
         regexp: '^192\.'
      tags:
       - delete192

4.3 验证

[root@master test]# cat hosts

127.0.0.1 localhosts

5、文件存在就添加一行

5.1原文件

[root@master test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts

5.2 剧本

    - name: add a line
      lineinfile:
         dest:  /opt/playbook/test/hosts
         line: '192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo\ntest'
      tags:
       - add_a_line

5.3 验证

[root@master test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo
test

line可以使用\n来添加多行
注意:①如果是添加单行,已经存在的行不会重复添加  ②如果是添加多行,会重复添加已存在的行

 

 

6、如果匹配到,引用line这一行作为替换。如果没有匹配到,则完全引用line这一行作为添加

6.1 原文件

[root@master test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL

6.2 剧本

    - name: Fully quoted a line
      lineinfile:
         dest: /opt/playbook/test/testfile
         state: present
         regexp: '^%wheel'
         line: '%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL'

      tags:
        - testfile

6.3 验证

[root@master test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL

6.4 原文件

[root@master test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  1234  ALL =(all) NOPASSWD

6.5 验证

Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file

PLAY [gitlab] ******************************************************************

TASK [Fully quoted a line] *****************************************************
changed: [master] => {"backup": "", "changed": true, "msg": "line replaced"}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
master                     : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   

[root@master test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL

7、关于参数backrefs,backup使用。

  • backrefs为no时,如果没有匹配,则添加一行line。如果匹配了,则把匹配内容替被换为line内容。

  • backrefs为yes时,如果没有匹配,则文件保持不变。如果匹配了,把匹配内容替被换为line内容。

  • backup为no时,没有匹配,则添加。如果匹配了,则替换

  • backup为yes时,没有匹配,添加,如果匹配了,则替换

7.1 需要关心的,backrefs为yes时情景

7.1.1 原文件

[root@master test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL
#?bar

7.1.2 剧本

    - name: test backrefs
      lineinfile:
#          backup: yes
          state: present
          dest: /opt/playbook/test/testfile
          regexp: '^#\?bar'
          backrefs: yes
          line: 'bar'
      tags:
        - test_backrefs

7.1.3 验证

[root@master test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL
bar

7.1.3 没有匹配

[root@master test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL

7.1.4 验证

Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file

PLAY [gitlab] ******************************************************************

TASK [test backrefs] ***********************************************************
ok: [master] => {"backup": "", "changed": false, "msg": ""}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
master                     : ok=1    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0

文件保持不变

8、使用valiate参数,在保存sudoers文件前,验证语法,如果有错,执行时,会报出来,重新编辑playbook

8.1 剧本

- name: test validate
      lineinfile:
          dest: /etc/sudoers
          state: present
          regexp: '^%ADMIN ALL='
          line: '%ADMIN ALL=(ALL)'
          validate: 'visudo -cf %s'
      tags:
        - testsudo

8.2 执行验证就说语法不过关

Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file

PLAY [gitlab] ******************************************************************

TASK [test validate] ***********************************************************
fatal: [master]: FAILED! => {"changed": false, "failed": true, "msg": "failed to validate: rc:1 error:visudo:>>> /tmp/tmpgQjHYM:syntax error 在行 114 附近<<<\n"}
	to retry, use: --limit @/opt/playbook/test/line1.retry

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
master                     : ok=0    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=1

三、总结

具体模块使用,ansible-doc可以查看详细用法。

在尝试学习新的语言之前先理解这门语言的设计原理能够让你在探索这门新语言时保持一个清醒而且开发的状态。
博主

这货来去如风,什么鬼都没留下!!!

相关推荐

嗨、骚年、快来消灭0回复。